Looking Forward Through The Lifespan Developmental Psychology 6th Edition Peterson Test Bank

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Looking Forward Through The Lifespan Developmental Psychology 6th Edition Peterson Test Bank.

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Looking Forward Through The Lifespan Developmental Psychology 6th Edition Peterson Test Bank

Product details:

  • ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 1442556501
  • ISBN-13 ‏ : ‎ 978-1442556508
  • Author: Candida Peterson, PhD, F.A.S.S.A

When a local context really makes the difference…

The edition of this original Australian text continues to offer the most balanced coverage of theory and research for Australian students and educators and appeals to students from many backgrounds. It covers the domains of development including neurological, cognitive, social, physical and personality.

The text is organised chronologically by chapter. Within each chapter content is organised topically. This structure allows for a degree of flexibility and lecturers can choose the way they wish to approach the content, whether it is topically or chronologically.

Table contents:

  1. Part 1 Studying human development over the lifespan
  2. Overview
  3. Chapter 1 Lifespan developmental psychology
  4. Chapter overview
  5. Adults can grow psychologically through the whole of life
  6. Hallmarks of the lifespan approach to psychological understanding
  7. Lifelong development
  8. Continuity and change
  9. Box 1.1 Four luminary lifespans
  10. Culture and the lifespan
  11. Normative lifespan transitions
  12. Why is age so important to psychologists?
  13. The personal meaning of age
  14. Box 1.2 A case in point: What it means to be 50
  15. Personal plans for lifespan development
  16. The human lifespan today
  17. Social and historical changes in personal age consciousness
  18. Box 1.3 Activity suggestion: Lifeline drawing
  19. Will you live to be 100?
  20. Culture, age and lifespan development
  21. Filial piety and attitudes to age
  22. Indigenous ageing: Becoming an elder
  23. Development in historical perspective
  24. The history of childhood
  25. The history of adolescence
  26. The history of adulthood, old age and the lifespan
  27. Age and society
  28. The normative social clock
  29. Box 1.4 Activity suggestion: Age makes the news
  30. The problem of ageism
  31. Box 1.5 A pause for thought: Is it wrong to laugh?
  32. Box 1.6 How can you explain it?: Ageism is a health hazard
  33. The science of lifespan human development
  34. Studying change
  35. The field of lifespan developmental psychology
  36. Core assumptions of the lifespan approach
  37. The concept of development
  38. Permanent change
  39. Qualitative and quantitative change
  40. Normative, generalisable change
  41. Box 1.7 Activity suggestion: Development through art
  42. Progressive change: The actualising of hidden potential
  43. Life-cycle surprises
  44. Longitudinal studies with unexpected twists
  45. Box 1.8 How can you explain it?: Cheerfulness, conscientiousness and longevity
  46. The adult development of ‘late bloomers’
  47. Nurturing development through the lifespan
  48. Developmental optimisation
  49. Box 1.9 A case in point: Optimising health education with traditional Indigenous art
  50. Parents and developmental optimisation
  51. Optimisation through education
  52. The optimising roles of health and helping professionals
  53. Looking forward
  54. Chapter summary
  55. For further interest
  56. Chapter 2 The science of lifespan development: Goals, theories and methodology
  57. Chapter overview
  58. The scientific goals of lifespan research
  59. Three key scientific goals
  60. Box 2.1 Activity suggestion: What can research tell us that we don’t already know?
  61. Descriptive research: Picturing psychological development age by age
  62. Interpreting descriptive age norms
  63. Explanatory research: Creating theories and testing predictions
  64. Box 2.2 How can you explain it?: Age differences in IQ
  65. Box 2.3 Activity suggestion: Test your sleuthing skill
  66. Analogies for development: Pre-theoretical models
  67. The environmental-mechanistic model
  68. The organic-maturational model
  69. Box 2.4 Using science: From description to explanation: Why do we age?
  70. The dialectical model
  71. Box 2.5 Activity suggestion: Test your taste for the dialectical model of development
  72. Optimisation: The goal of applied research
  73. Life-cycle surprises and optimisation research
  74. The methods of developmental psychology
  75. Box 2.6 How can you explain it?: Learning music in childhood boosts mental ability in old age
  76. Case studies
  77. Naturalistic observation
  78. Box 2.7 A child called Louise
  79. Experimental research in developmental science
  80. Self-report techniques
  81. Developmental research designs: Tracking psychological functioning over time
  82. The cross-sectional design
  83. Box 2.8 How can you explain it?: Are Australians becoming more temperamental?
  84. The longitudinal design
  85. Time-lag studies and time-of-test effects
  86. Sequential methodologies
  87. Theories of lifespan development
  88. The psychoanalytic approach: Freud and Erikson
  89. Freud’s theory
  90. Box 2.9 Freud’s life
  91. Erikson’s theory
  92. Box 2.10 Erikson’s life
  93. The cognitive-developmental approach: Piaget and Vygotsky
  94. Piaget’s theory
  95. Box 2.11 Piaget’s life
  96. Vygotsky’s theory
  97. Box 2.12 Vygotsky’s life
  98. Learning theories: Classical theories and the social learning approach
  99. Social learning and Bandura’s social-cognitive learning theory
  100. Box 2.13 A glossary of learning terminology
  101. Adult-oriented lifespan theories: Organic self-determination
  102. Buhler’s theory
  103. Box 2.14 Buhler’s life
  104. Levinson’s theory
  105. Vaillant’s theory
  106. Paul Baltes’ cognitive lifespan theory
  107. Selective optimisation with compensation
  108. Box 2.15 Baltes’ life
  109. Chapter summary
  110. For further interest
  111. Chapter 3 In the beginning: Heredity, prenatal development and birth
  112. Chapter overview
  113. The first step in development: Heredity meets environment
  114. Genes, chromosomes and DNA
  115. Genes and individual differences
  116. Polygenic inheritance versus simple pairs of genes
  117. Dominance–recessivity in a gene pair
  118. Co-dominance and additive gene effects
  119. Sex-linked traits
  120. Chromosome abnormalities
  121. Genetic counselling
  122. The new genetics: Polygenic inheritance and quantitative methodologies
  123. Polygenic inheritance
  124. Genome-wide association studies
  125. Gene–environment interdependence
  126. Epigenesis and epigenetics
  127. Nurturant parenting reshapes DNA
  128. Epigenetic shaping of the human brain
  129. Behaviour genetics
  130. Twin studies: A window on nature versus nurture
  131. Twin comparisons: Intelligence and personality
  132. Thinking critically about twin studies
  133. Identical twins: Identical treatment?
  134. Box 3.1 How can you explain it?: Uncanny similarities
  135. Shared and non-shared environment
  136. The children-of-twins (CoT) design
  137. Studying polygenic inheritance with the adoption design
  138. Adoption studies of intelligence and personality
  139. Combining adoption studies with twin studies in cross-cultural research
  140. Thinking critically about adoption designs
  141. Effects of adoption itself on psychological development
  142. Nature and nurture together: The interaction between heredity and environment
  143. Box 3.2 Fountain-of-youth in one world, poison chalice in another
  144. Box 3.3 Expressing individuality: A ‘whole’ child of six
  145. Niche-picking: Children as active environmental engineers
  146. Non-shared family environments
  147. Heritable environments: Active and passive gene–environment correlations
  148. The range-of-reaction principle
  149. Evolutionary preselection and specialisation
  150. Box 3.4 Activity suggestion: Bush tucker
  151. Why are children in the same family so different? Resolving the paradox of nature versus nurture
  152. Heredity’s lifespan influence
  153. Delayed gene action
  154. Gene–environment interactions in adult development
  155. Prenatal development: From zygote to foetus
  156. The period of the zygote
  157. The period of the embryo
  158. The period of the foetus
  159. Foetal brain development
  160. Cortical cell migration
  161. Prenatal myelination
  162. The emergence of behaviour
  163. Box 3.5 How can you explain it?: Does the nervous system ‘age’ before birth?
  164. Critical periods in prenatal development
  165. Teratogenic influences
  166. Optimising prenatal development
  167. Box 3.6 Optimising development: The ecology of the womb
  168. Box 3.7 How can you explain it?: Maternal stress
  169. Prenatal cognitive development
  170. The human mind before birth
  171. The expectant parents during pregnancy
  172. Planned and unplanned pregnancies
  173. Expecting a boy or a girl
  174. Box 3.8 How can you explain it?: Life-cycle surprises: Does a mother’s attitude to the foetus pred
  175. The baby’s birth
  176. Stages of labour
  177. The uncomplicated delivery
  178. Childbirth complications: Prematurity and low birth weight
  179. Box 3.9 Indigenous insight: Birth in a traditional Aboriginal community
  180. Long-term developmental consequences of birth complications
  181. The transition to parenthood
  182. Box 3.10 A child called Louise: A father’s reaction to childbirth
  183. Chapter summary
  184. For further interest
  185. Part 2 Infancy—From birth to age two
  186. Overview
  187. Chapter 4 Infancy: Physical, neurobiological, sensorimotor and cognitive development
  188. Chapter overview
  189. Behaviour in the first three months
  190. Reflex behaviours
  191. Crying
  192. Culture and caregivers’ responses to crying
  193. Soothing the crying infant
  194. Indigenous Australians’ soothing practices
  195. Sleeping
  196. Lifespan changes in dreaming
  197. Box 4.1 Indigenous insight: Dreamtime lullabies
  198. A child called Louise: Pleasures and dreams at 10 months of age
  199. Culture and infant sleep patterns
  200. Box 4.3 How can you explain it?: Cot death: The mystery killer
  201. Box 4.4 Optimising development: Reducing SIDS via neurocognition and learning
  202. Solitary sleep versus communal social inclusion
  203. Neurobiological and neurocognitive development in infancy
  204. Growth of the brain
  205. Neurogenesis and neural network connections
  206. Synapses: Generating and pruning
  207. Myelination
  208. Physical growth during infancy
  209. Cultural influences on physical growth: Aboriginal children
  210. Box 4.5 How can you explain it?: Does owning a TV slow down the body’s physical growth
  211. The growth of beauty
  212. The development of motor skills
  213. Nature versus nurture in motor skill development
  214. Box 4.6 A case in point: The motor skills of a one-year-old
  215. Culture and skill: Aboriginal infants’ motor development
  216. The development of sensory and perceptual skills
  217. The five senses at birth
  218. The development of vision and hearing during infancy
  219. Perceptual development
  220. Coordinating perceptual and motor skills
  221. Cognition and learning during infancy
  222. Learning complex contingencies
  223. Curiosity and attention
  224. Box 4.7 The world of a 16-month-old
  225. Infant learning
  226. Piaget’s sensorimotor stage: Concepts of permanence and causality
  227. Box 4.8 Activity suggestion: Grabbing attention over the lifespan
  228. The concept of object permanence
  229. The concept of causality
  230. Contemporary research on infants’ causality concepts
  231. Personality, emotion and cognition
  232. Gaining trust
  233. Box 4.9 A case in point: Babies learn about blindfolds by being tricked
  234. Developing a sense of personal control
  235. Learned helplessness
  236. Developing self-efficacy
  237. Chapter summary
  238. For further interest
  239. Chapter 5 Infancy: Social, emotional and personality development
  240. Chapter overview
  241. The roots of personality: Infant temperament
  242. All babies are different
  243. Box 5.1 Expressing individuality: Two different babies
  244. Patterns of temperament
  245. Nature versus nurture: Genetic and neurocognitive influences on temperament
  246. Box 5.2 How can you explain it?: Prickly Generation X?
  247. Variations in temperament over cultures and generations
  248. Indigenous Australian infants’ temperaments
  249. Box 5.3 Indigenous insight: Breastfeeding
  250. Seeking causes for cross-cultural differences in temperament: Genes versus childrearing
  251. Indigenous parenting and personality
  252. Box 5.4 How can you explain it?: Cultural paradoxes in early temperament
  253. Lifespan perspectives on temperament
  254. Does early temperament predict later personality?
  255. The goodness-of-fit hypothesis
  256. Temperament, parenting and the socialisation process
  257. Emotional development in infancy
  258. Emotional self-regulation
  259. Attachment: The first intimate relationship
  260. Box 5.5 A case in point: Pacifying temper with a thumb
  261. Before attachment: General sociability
  262. Prerequisites for attachment
  263. First signs of true love
  264. The ‘Strange Situation’
  265. Box 5.6 How can you explain it?: Do you cuddle a teddy bear?
  266. Cultural variations in attachment classifications
  267. The cognitive and neurocognitive underpinnings of secure attachment: Working models and modules
  268. Optimising development: Causes and consequences of secure/insecure attachment
  269. Caregiver sensitivity
  270. The caregiver’s attachment history
  271. Infant temperament and attachment
  272. Day care and attachment
  273. Box 5.7 A case in point: Day care—a brave new world
  274. Attachment through the lifespan
  275. Child and adult sequels to infant attachment
  276. Box 5.8 A pause for thought: Can you typecast these six-year-old storytellers?
  277. Friendships with other children as a function of infant attachment
  278. Attachment and intimacy over the lifespan
  279. Fathering
  280. Father–infant attachment
  281. Culture, fathering and the world of work
  282. Fathering from a lifespan perspective
  283. Chapter summary
  284. For further interest
  285. In a nutshell: Milestones of development in infancy
  286. Part 3 The preschool period—From age two to age six
  287. Overview
  288. Chapter 6 Toddlers: Cognitive, social and personality development in the context of language acquisi
  289. Chapter overview
  290. Getting ready to speak: The cognitive, social and neurological prerequisites for language
  291. Symbolic representation
  292. Sign language and spoken words
  293. The neuropsychology of sign language and the developing brain
  294. Symbolic representation and pretend play
  295. Language milestones: Speech sounds before meaning
  296. Box 6.1 Activity suggestion: Let’s pretend
  297. Producing noises
  298. Listening to others’ speech
  299. Pragmatic language and pseudo-conversations
  300. The greatest discovery in life: Word meaning
  301. Box 6.2 A case in point: Ba’ means ‘ball’
  302. Culture, cognition and the growth of word meaning
  303. Linguistic creativity: Overextension of word meaning
  304. Underextension of word meaning
  305. Box 6.3 Indigenous insight: Thinking about numbers in Anindilyakwa and Walpiri
  306. Language development: Is it uniquely human?
  307. Box 6.4 A case in point: The range of things that a word can mean
  308. Culture and conversational partners as language teachers
  309. Setbacks in vocabulary development
  310. Bilingual children
  311. Box 6.5 A pause for thought: Can you decode the toddler’s lexicon?
  312. Syntactic development: Mastering the rules of language
  313. The holophrastic stage
  314. Box 6.6 What can a single word mean?
  315. Two-word sentences
  316. Telegraphic grammar and overregularisation
  317. Transformational grammar: Negatives, queries and complex sentences
  318. Box 6.7 A case in point: The magic of a child’s early sentence constructions
  319. Theories of language acquisition
  320. Is language innate?
  321. Conversational ‘nurture’ theories of language development
  322. Pragmatic skills and the growth of social language
  323. Language, culture and social cognition
  324. Conversations, culture and motherese
  325. Indigenous language teachers and learners
  326. Box 6.8 Indigenous insight: Adults teaching language to children
  327. Social cognition and conversation
  328. Raising the ante and listening sympathetically
  329. Box 6.9 Indigenous insight: Motherese in Arnhem Land
  330. Personality development in toddlerhood
  331. Self-awareness
  332. Erikson’s lifespan theory: Autonomy versus shame and doubt
  333. Toddlerhood negativism: Nexus of social, personality and language development
  334. Negativistic self-assertion
  335. Day care and negativism
  336. Box 6.10 A case in point: The terrible twos
  337. Gaining social skills: Negativism and negotiation
  338. Cultural differences in parenting for self-assertion
  339. Box 6.11 Activity suggestion: Developing assertiveness
  340. Neuroscience and lifespan language growth
  341. Neuroscience and language learning
  342. Critical periods in language growth
  343. The lifespan benefits of bilingualism
  344. Bilingualism among Indigenous Australians and New Zealanders
  345. Box 6.12 Indigenous insight: Test yourself: Developmental stages
  346. Chapter summary
  347. For further interest
  348. Chapter 7 Preschoolers: Physical, neurocognitive, emotional, intellectual and social development
  349. Chapter overview
  350. Physical growth and motor skills during early childhood
  351. Physical growth
  352. Diet, growth and health
  353. Motor skills
  354. Box 7.1 Indigenous insight: Bush tucker
  355. Neurocognitive development during the preschool period
  356. Brain growth
  357. Myelination of neural paths
  358. Lateralisation
  359. Deafness and brain lateralisation
  360. Brain plasticity and critical periods for language
  361. Cognitive development: Preoperational thinking
  362. Preoperational concepts of biology and physics
  363. Box 7.2 A case in point: Animistic thinking
  364. Preschool logic
  365. The problem of conservation
  366. Box 7.3 Piaget’s realism and artificialism
  367. Conservation of distance
  368. Conservation of number
  369. Conservation of substance
  370. Conservation of fluid quantity
  371. The development of conservation understanding
  372. Box 7.4 Activity suggestion: Joking with conservation
  373. Numerical and mathematical concepts
  374. Classification
  375. Seriation
  376. Transitive inference
  377. Numeracy
  378. Piaget’s theory: Mechanisms of developmental change
  379. Equilibration
  380. Cognitive conflict
  381. Responding to Piaget: Contemporary extensions and alternatives
  382. Social influences on cognitive development: Peer discussion and conflict
  383. Culture, peer debate and cognitive development
  384. Learning to interpret conserving transformations
  385. Lessons from bilingual children
  386. Box 7.5 Indigenous insight: Thinking in two languages at once
  387. Conversational biases in experimental testing
  388. Vygotsky’s sociocultural approach
  389. Memory development
  390. Box 7.6 Applying psychology: Memories in court
  391. Strategic memorisation by preschoolers and older children
  392. Box 7.7 A case in point: Effortless memory at 20 months and at age four
  393. Deliberate, voluntary memory
  394. Box 7.8 Indigenous insight: The amazing memory skills of Aboriginal children
  395. Metamemory
  396. Emotional development during early childhood
  397. Understanding emotion and desire
  398. Self-esteem
  399. Social cognition and theory of mind
  400. Culture and theory of mind
  401. Neurocognitive development and theory of mind
  402. Box 7.9 A case in point: Culture and the understanding of what is on an adult’s mind
  403. Autism and theory of mind
  404. Children with visual or hearing impairments
  405. Siblings and theory of mind
  406. Box 7.10 A case in point: Gifts as boosts to theory of mind
  407. Social play
  408. Developmental changes in social play
  409. Cultural and evolutionary issues in the development of play
  410. Pretend play as a developmental optimiser
  411. Cognition, conservation and pretend play
  412. Creativity and cognitive flexibility
  413. Pretend play and theory of mind
  414. Pretend play, emotional self-regulation and emotional understanding
  415. Pretend play and negotiation skills
  416. Parents and play
  417. Chapter summary
  418. For further interest
  419. In a nutshell: Milestones of development from age two to age six
  420. Part 4 Middle childhood—Age six to age 12
  421. Overview
  422. Chapter 8 Middle childhood: Social, personality and sex-role development
  423. Chapter overview
  424. Parental influences on social and personality development
  425. Parents’ childrearing styles and philosophies
  426. Box 8.1 A case in point: One six-year-old adjusts to the novelty of school
  427. Reasoning or punishment? Parents’ disciplinary tactics
  428. Optimally effective parenting
  429. Cultural variations in parenting
  430. Box 8.2 Indigenous insight: Childrearing in remote Indigenous Australia
  431. Siblings and psychological development
  432. Sibling rivalry and differential parenting
  433. Siblings as tutors
  434. Siblings and social cognition
  435. ‘Catching’ a theory of mind from siblings
  436. The only child
  437. Personality and the self-concept
  438. Industry versus inferiority
  439. The development of self-esteem
  440. Peers as developmental influences
  441. Measuring a child’s status in the peer group: The sociometric technique
  442. Box 8.3 A case in point: The pain of social exclusion
  443. Are sociometric classifications reliable?
  444. The correlates of peer acceptance and rejection
  445. Loneliness versus unpopularity
  446. Compensating for peer group rejection: Mixed-age peer groups and mutual friendships
  447. The development of sex roles
  448. The socialisation of children into sex roles
  449. Do Millennial boys love dolls?
  450. Box 8.4 Activity suggestion: Conducting an inventory of a child’s bedroom
  451. Television and sex-typing
  452. The cognitive development of gender understanding
  453. Ages and stages of gender constancy understanding
  454. Box 8.5 A case in point: Why can’t a woman be just like a man?
  455. The development of androgyny
  456. Theories of gender-role development
  457. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
  458. Social learning theory
  459. Kohlberg’s cognitive-developmental theory
  460. Gender schema theory
  461. Comparing theories of sex-role development
  462. Culture and social relationships
  463. Moral development
  464. The development of moral behaviour
  465. Box 8.6 A pause for thought: Do the best minds produce the strongest consciences?
  466. The development of moral understanding during childhood
  467. Box 8.7 A case in point: Louise and Taffy in awe of adults
  468. Piaget’s theory in the 21st century
  469. Social conventions versus moral rules
  470. The positive side of morality
  471. Helpfulness versus bystander apathy
  472. Infants’ altruistic helpfulness
  473. Fairness and distributive justice
  474. Justice concepts
  475. Box 8.8 Indigenous insight: Cultural contrasts in justice views
  476. Chapter summary
  477. For further interest
  478. Chapter 9 Middle childhood: Physical, neurobiological, cognitive and emotional development in the co
  479. Chapter overview
  480. Health and physical growth during middle childhood
  481. Physical growth trends
  482. Problematic growth: Obesity and malnutrition
  483. Box 9.1 A case in point: Counting calories at age nine
  484. Box 9.2 Lessons from culture: If only I was plump!
  485. Television and weight problems
  486. Weight, diet and nutrition in cross-cultural perspective
  487. Optimising physical growth: Diet and exercise
  488. Health, illness and health understanding
  489. Neurocognitive development in middle childhood
  490. Myelination
  491. Box 9.3 Indigenous insight: Shopping for health
  492. Grey matter changes
  493. Neurocognitive activity in sleep and wakefulness
  494. Lateralisation and the corpus callosum
  495. The development of motor and athletic skills
  496. Emotional development
  497. The development of emotional competence
  498. Anger and anger management
  499. Fear and anxiety
  500. Box 9.4: Do fears grow as the child does?
  501. Cognitive development in the context of schooling
  502. Executive functioning skills and cognitive planning
  503. Developmental changes in attention during middle childhood
  504. Box 9.5: Activity suggestion: Brain teasers
  505. Selective attention
  506. Thinking flexibly and strategically
  507. Metacognition: Children’s knowledge about thinking
  508. Memory and problem solving
  509. Executive functioning and cognitive flexibility
  510. Box 9.6 Activity suggestion: Sorting cards
  511. Creativity and cognitive flexibility
  512. Evaluative thinking: Reflection versus impulsivity
  513. Developing literacy
  514. Developing reading readiness: Awareness of books and phonology
  515. Box 9.7 Activity suggestion: How do you hold a book?
  516. Novice readers
  517. Box 9.8 A case in point: Learning the logic of words
  518. Reading for meaning
  519. The development of reading in Aboriginal children
  520. The motivation to succeed academically
  521. Mastery orientation versus learned helplessness
  522. Box 9.9 Using psychology: Optimising children’s motivations to succeed
  523. Parents, children and academic achievement
  524. Children can be taught to become more mastery oriented
  525. Developmental changes in causal attributions for success or failure
  526. Culture and schooling
  527. Mismatches between the cultures of home and school
  528. The language of schooling
  529. Box 9.10 Indigenous insight: Languages reborn
  530. Teachers’ expectations of diverse cultural groups
  531. Bilingual children in school
  532. Box 9.11 Lessons from culture: The strange languages of school
  533. Politeness, obedience and the culture of schooling
  534. Chapter summary
  535. For further interest
  536. In a nutshell: Milestones of development from age six to age 12
  537. Part 5 The adolescent phase
  538. Overview
  539. Chapter 10 Adolescence: Physical, emotional and sexual development in the context of biological pube
  540. Chapter overview
  541. Adolescence as a transition event
  542. Historical views of adolescence and the modern ‘generation gap’
  543. Box 10.1 A case in point: Puberty blues
  544. Cross-cultural views of the adolescent transition
  545. Initiation ceremonies
  546. Box 10.2 Indigenous insight: The pubertal initiation ceremony
  547. The growth changes of biological puberty
  548. Box 10.3 Indigenous insight: Lifelong benefits of ceremonial initiation
  549. The milestones of pubertal growth
  550. Puberty and the brain
  551. Intra- versus inter-individual growth asynchronies
  552. A historical asynchrony: The secular trend
  553. Emotions, lifestyle and puberty
  554. Box 10.4 How can you explain it?: Early and late menarche
  555. Father absence and pubertal timing
  556. The psychological impact of puberty
  557. Body image concerns and adolescentself-concept
  558. Sexual maturation
  559. Box 10.5 Activity suggestion: Breasts versus legs
  560. Adolescent physical growth, body image and self-esteem
  561. Eating disorders and weight preoccupation
  562. Box 10.6 A case in point: On not being a ‘Sport’
  563. Optimising weight and body imageover the lifespan
  564. Life-cycle surprises: How puberty’s timing shapes development and wellbeing
  565. Early and late puberty in boys: Consequences during adolescence
  566. Box 10.7 How can you explain it?: Pubertal timing in adolescence and substance abuse in adulthood
  567. Early and late puberty in girls: Consequences during adolescence
  568. Cross-cultural comparisons of biological growth effects on adolescent psychology
  569. Lifespan consequences of puberty’s timing
  570. Box 10.8 A case in point: She’s a young woman going out the door
  571. Adolescent family relationships and puberty
  572. Mothers’ influences on girls
  573. Adolescent sexuality
  574. Sex education across cultures
  575. Box 10.9 A case in point: A babe in the woods
  576. Communicating with parents about sex
  577. Sexually transmitted infections
  578. Ethnic differences in STI and AIDS awareness
  579. Coitarche
  580. The timing of coitarche
  581. Cultural variations in sexual behaviour
  582. Chapter summary
  583. For further interest
  584. Chapter 11 Adolescence: Cognitive, moral and personality development
  585. Chapter overview
  586. Neurocognitive growth in adolescence
  587. Methods for investigating adolescent brain development
  588. Neurodevelopmental changes in the brain’s prefrontal cortex
  589. Changes in subcortical brain systems during adolescence
  590. Synaptic pruning and adolescent brain plasticity
  591. Piaget’s theory of adolescent cognition
  592. The transition from concrete-operational to formal-operational thinking
  593. Box 11.1 A case in point: Thinking concretely about a classic film
  594. Box 11.2 Activity suggestion: Testing for formal-operational thinking
  595. The nature and measurement of formal-operational thought
  596. The problem of the yellow liquid: All-combinations reasoning
  597. The pendulum problem: Hypotheses and possibilities
  598. The beam balance problem: Proportionality and reversibility
  599. The horizontal plane: Higher-order abstract concepts and the logic of propositions
  600. When do formal operations develop? Revisions of Piaget’s theory
  601. Schooling and formal operations
  602. Box 11.3 A case in point: Frustration in a physics class
  603. Developmental divergence in peak abilities
  604. Cognitive specialisation
  605. Assessing Piagetian formal operations in the 21st century
  606. Are contemporary teenagers illogical? A cohort-linked decline in formal-operational reasoning
  607. Twenty-first century neurocognition and Piaget’s theory
  608. Adolescent cognition in everyday life
  609. Box 11.4 Activity suggestion: Test your own ingenuity: What do you think?
  610. Thinking logically about health andillness
  611. Thinking about politics and economics
  612. Thinking about the mind: Second-order false belief understanding
  613. Social cognition and the transition to formal-operational thought
  614. The imaginary-audience syndrome
  615. Box 11.5 Strutting and fretting on an imaginary stage
  616. Health, dating and the imaginary audience
  617. Formal operations and sexual risk-taking
  618. Moral development during adolescence
  619. Box 11.6 Using science: Social media and the imaginary audience
  620. Kohlberg’s theory
  621. Ages and stages of moral growth
  622. A critique of Kohlberg’s theory
  623. Actions speak louder than words: Moral reasoning and behaviour
  624. Culture, collectivism and the morality of care
  625. Gender and moral reasoning
  626. Box 11.7 Expressing individuality: Gender dfferences in the logic of morality
  627. Personality development: The identity crisis
  628. Box 11.8 Indigenous insight: Identity crisis resolution as a dialectical balance
  629. Box 11.9 A pause for thought: Can you assess identity?
  630. Identity statuses
  631. Box 11.10 A case in point: Identity exploration through social comparison
  632. Consequences of identity growth for personality and adjustment
  633. Cultural variations in personality and identity development
  634. Developing an ethnic identity
  635. Box 11.11 Activity suggestion: Test your multicultural IQ
  636. Identity development in AboriginalAustralian adolescents
  637. Box 11.12 A case in point: A charming age in Samoa
  638. The benefits of an Indigenous Australian ethnic identity
  639. Identity development in New Zealand Maori adolescents
  640. Box 11.13 A case in point: Identity in Maori women in New Zealand
  641. Chapter summary
  642. For further interest
  643. Chapter 12 Adolescence: Social, personality and relationship development
  644. Chapter overview
  645. Becoming independent of parents
  646. Gaining independence at home
  647. Box 12.1 Growth towards independence
  648. Emerging into adulthood: Emotional and social transitions
  649. The psychoanalytic model: Freud and Erikson
  650. Emancipation through dialogue
  651. Cultural variations in the process of becoming independent
  652. Attachment to parents and peers
  653. Working models of attachment
  654. Parent–adolescent conflict and communication
  655. Family negotiation strategies
  656. Learning to negotiate at home
  657. Family conflict and adolescent self-esteem
  658. Family communication, conflict and identity exploration
  659. Parenting styles and discipline strategies
  660. Parenting styles and adolescent outcomes
  661. Single parents, step-parents and adolescent adjustment
  662. Culture and the parenting of teenagers
  663. Criminal activity and juvenile delinquency
  664. Culture, income and juvenile delinquency
  665. Family violence
  666. Adolescents and substance abuse
  667. Cigarette smoking
  668. Drinking alcohol
  669. Box 12.2 How can you explain it?: Does smoking damage the brain?
  670. Other drugs
  671. Adolescent suicide
  672. Culture and youth suicide
  673. Developmental changes in suicide risk
  674. Indigenous Australians
  675. The positive developmental influences of family and friends
  676. Parent–peer cross-pressures
  677. Box 12.3 Parent–peer pressures and the dilemmas of a school dance
  678. Cross-cultural comparisons of adolescents’ parent–peer relations
  679. Box 12.4 Fun with peers at Helensville, New Zealand
  680. Adolescent friendship
  681. Social cognition and the understandingof friendship
  682. The problematic side of adolescent friendship: Bullying and relational aggression
  683. Box 12.5 The horror of being ‘hated’
  684. Friendship versus solitude in adolescent adjustment
  685. Adolescent couple relationships in early dating
  686. The dating game
  687. Culture, dating and teen marriage
  688. Box 12.6 The history of dating in Australia
  689. The development of gender roles and androgyny in adolescence
  690. The adolescent peer group
  691. Box 12.7 Peer pressure and dating
  692. Chapter summary
  693. For further interest
  694. In a nutshell: Milestones of development in adolescence
  695. Part 6 Adulthood
  696. Overview
  697. Chapter 13 Early adulthood: Physical, cognitive, social and personality development
  698. Chapter overview
  699. Life events and emergent adulthood
  700. Neurocognitive growth and functioning during early adulthood
  701. Neurocognition and adult competencies
  702. Neurocognitive growth spurts
  703. Adult brain plasticity
  704. Pathways to relationship maturity: Falling in love
  705. What is romantic love?
  706. The many splendours of early romantic love
  707. Box 13.1 Media watch: The humour of love
  708. Box 13.2 A case in point: The morning after the ball
  709. Lifespan developmental theories of love
  710. Equitable love: The development from passion to the keeping of accounts
  711. Box 13.3 How can you explain it?: The rewards of romance
  712. Dialectical mature love
  713. Erikson’s theory of personality growth through intimacy
  714. Adult attachment style and relationships
  715. The influence of attachment style on the development of love
  716. Box 13.4 Activity suggestion: Attachment styles of young adults
  717. Falling out of love
  718. Measuring adult attachment
  719. Adult attachment, culture and relationships with parents
  720. Attachments to love and work
  721. The first career development transition: Entering the economy
  722. Graduating into employment or unemployment
  723. Youth economic inactivity: Psychological and developmental consequences
  724. Indigenous Australian and New Zealand adults and economic inactivity
  725. Career goals, life goals and adult identity development
  726. Life goals and career goals
  727. The identity crisis and forging an identity at work
  728. Career exploration and identity search
  729. The first stages of career development
  730. Trial commitment
  731. Adjusting to the job
  732. Marriage, culture and psychological growth
  733. Cohabiting versus legal marriage
  734. The domestic division of labour
  735. Box 13.5 Indigenous insight: An Aboriginal arranged marriage
  736. Same-sex couplehood
  737. What predicts divorce?
  738. The transition to parenthood
  739. The advantages and disadvantages of parenthood
  740. Becoming a new parent
  741. The later challenges of parenthood
  742. Box 13.6 The delights of fatherhood
  743. Chapter summary
  744. For further interest
  745. Chapter 14 Middle adulthood: Physical, cognitive, social and personality growth
  746. Chapter overview
  747. Physical and motor development in middle adulthood
  748. Neurocognitive development in middle adulthood
  749. Neurocognitive plasticity
  750. Box 14.1 A pause for thought: Can playing golf change your brain?
  751. Adult brain growth
  752. Nurturing the development of the adult brain
  753. Enriched experience and adult brain growth
  754. Do men’s and women’s adult brains develop differently?
  755. The gain–loss dialectic in adult neurocognition
  756. The psychology of adult gender di�erences
  757. Personality development in adulthood
  758. Lifespan personality growth
  759. Developing the need to be needed:Generativity versus stagnation
  760. Lifespan changes in androgyny
  761. Mature adults’ cognitive development
  762. Marriage development in middle adulthood
  763. The U-shaped curve of marital happiness
  764. Marital disenchantment
  765. Marital re-enchantment: Why are old marriages happier than younger ones?
  766. Box 14.2 How can you explain it?: Marital disenchantment
  767. Box 14.3 A case in point: A marriage of minds
  768. Are married people happier than singles?
  769. Cross-cultural studies of the development of marriage
  770. Traditional Indigenous Australian marriage
  771. Box 14.4 Indigenous insight: When ‘legal marriage’ was illegal
  772. Traditional Japanese marriage
  773. Traditional Chinese marriage
  774. Theories of marriage development over the adult lifespan
  775. Lifespan sexuality and sexual satisfaction
  776. Stresses of parenthood
  777. Marital communication and conflict management
  778. Adult personality development in marriage
  779. Love and work
  780. Working at home: Family roles and adults’ household work
  781. Culture and family roles
  782. Androgyny and household work
  783. Domestic role allocation in same-sex couplehood
  784. Lifespan development, marital communication and household work
  785. Marriage and the home–career balance
  786. Dual-career couplehood
  787. Role strain: The pain of juggling love and work
  788. Box 14.5 Indigenous insight: Marital role division in remote Aboriginal Australia
  789. Theories of career development
  790. Donald Super’s theory
  791. Robert Havighurst’s theory
  792. Daniel Levinson’s theory
  793. Douglas Tim Hall’s theory: Protean careers
  794. Comparing career development theories: Research evidence
  795. The mid-career crisis
  796. Box 14.6 Activity suggestion: Protean careers
  797. Second careers and career recycling
  798. Box 14.7 A case in point: Mid-career crisis
  799. Changes in career satisfaction over the lifespan
  800. Burnout and career stress
  801. Box 14.8 A case in point: A rewarding second career
  802. Leisure pursuits and adult development
  803. What is leisure?
  804. Developmental potential of leisure pursuits
  805. Theories of leisure’s place in lifespan development
  806. Chapter summary
  807. For further interest
  808. Chapter 15 Late adulthood: Physical, cognitive, social and personality development
  809. Chapter overview
  810. The prime of life
  811. Life satisfaction at 50
  812. Box 15.1 A case in point: ‘The end’
  813. Turning points and transition events of late middle age
  814. Box 15.2 Indigenous insight: Senior Aboriginal women’s spiritual responsibilities
  815. Psychological adjustment to life transitions
  816. Cultural expectations and the social clock
  817. Intellectual and cognitive development in late middle age
  818. Schaie’s stage theory
  819. Dialectical thinking
  820. Balancing cognitive gains against losses: Mature creativity
  821. The development of faith, religion and spirituality
  822. Personality development in late middle age: The generativity crisis
  823. Age, generativity and creative potential
  824. Box 15.3 Expressing individuality: Elderly tall poppies
  825. Biological changes in late middle age
  826. Menopause and female physiology
  827. Box 15.4 Lessons from culture: Menopause in Mexico
  828. Psychological consequences of menopause
  829. Is there a male menopause?
  830. Sexuality after age 50
  831. Parent–child relationships after age 50
  832. The empty nest
  833. Adult children and their parents
  834. The transition into grandparenthood
  835. Box 15.5 Lessons from culture: Grandparenting in Fiji
  836. The psychological impact of the transition into grandparenthood
  837. The grandparent–grandchild relationship
  838. Grandparents, personality development and generativity
  839. Box 15.6 Indigenous insight: Grandparenthood
  840. The transition to retirement
  841. When to retire?
  842. Preparing for retirement
  843. Box 15.7 Retirement mythology
  844. The process of retiring
  845. Adjusting to retired life
  846. Leisure activities and goal development in retirement
  847. Chapter summary
  848. For further interest
  849. In a nutshell
  850. Part 7 Old age and the end of the lifespan
  851. Overview
  852. Chapter 16 Old age: Physical, neurobiological, sensorimotor and cognitive development
  853. Chapter overview
  854. What age is old age?
  855. The young-old versus the old-old
  856. Ageism and fear of ageing
  857. Personal optimism about ageing
  858. Box 16.1 A case in point: How does it feel to be 70 years old?
  859. Cross-cultural perspectives on ageing
  860. Old age in Western versus non-Western cultures
  861. Age and the sociocultural environment
  862. Box 16.2 Indigenous insight: An artistic seniority
  863. Box 16.3 Lessons from culture: Age and etiquette
  864. The interaction of biology and culture in human ageing
  865. Cultural environments and biological ageing
  866. Health attitudes, preventative health practices and physiological ageing
  867. The biological ageing process
  868. Ageing of the hair and skin
  869. Ageing of internal physiology
  870. Hormonal changes
  871. Ageing of the bones and teeth
  872. Ageing of the sense organs and perception
  873. The psychological impact of biological ageing
  874. Neurocognitive ageing
  875. Box 16.4 Test yourself: Are you health conscious or a victim of ageism?
  876. Box 16.5 Erasing the effects of neurocognitive ageing by playing video games
  877. Theories of biological ageing
  878. Disease theories
  879. Homeostasis and the compression of morbidity
  880. Cellular theories of ageing
  881. Environmental insult theories of ageing
  882. Optimising health and fitness in old age
  883. Diet and healthy ageing
  884. Box 16.6 A case in point: Two diffrent women face ageing in France
  885. Exercise and health in old age
  886. A healthy lifestyle: Avoiding avoidable risks
  887. Ageing and sport
  888. The processes of cognitive ageing: Memory
  889. Lifespan changes in memory performance
  890. Strategic compensation: Optimising memory performance in old age
  891. Box 16.7 A case in point: Absent-minded professors
  892. Motivation, lifestyle and memory
  893. Metamemory, self-efficacy and personal control
  894. Autobiographical memory
  895. Box 16.8 Activity suggestion: Who remembers what?
  896. Memory and personality: Life review and reminiscence
  897. Life review and psychological wellbeing
  898. The processes of cognitive ageing: Intelligence
  899. Box 16.9 A case in point: Taking a PhD exam at 80
  900. Age and IQ scores: A critical look at the scientific evidence
  901. One IQ or many? The different kinds of adult intelligence
  902. Fluid versus crystallised intelligence
  903. Speeded versus carefully considered performance
  904. Creative versus academic intelligence
  905. Successful cognitive ageing
  906. Box 16.10 Indigenous insight: The creativity of a senior Anmatyerre custodian of the land
  907. Wisdom
  908. Culture and wisdom
  909. Box 16.11 Indigenous insight: A wise elder
  910. Eastern and Western models of wisdom: A dialectical balance
  911. Box 16.12 Do you have a taste for Eastern or Western wisdom?
  912. Cultivating wisdom through lifelong learning
  913. Chapter summary
  914. For further interest
  915. Chapter 17 Old age: Social, emotional and personality development
  916. Chapter overview
  917. Successful social ageing
  918. Social roles and relationships in old age
  919. Is the rocking chair the way to go?
  920. Disengagement theory
  921. Three postulates of disengagement theory
  922. Thinking critically about disengagement theory
  923. Box 17.1 Ask yourself: A case of disengagement
  924. Culture and disengagement
  925. Box 17.2 A case in point: The continued pursuit of a committed life
  926. Activity theory
  927. Do people disengage or remain active in old age?
  928. Should old people disengage or stay active?
  929. Longitudinal research evidence on social ageing
  930. Personality continuity theory
  931. Integrated adults
  932. Less-than-optimal social ageing
  933. Box 17.3 A case in point: Integrated elderly adopt life patterns to suit earlier personalities
  934. The British longitudinal personalitystudy
  935. Socioemotional selectivity theory
  936. Older marriages and socioemotional selectivity theory
  937. Comparing disengagement, activity, continuity and selectivity theories
  938. Conflict-resolution strategies in mature relationships
  939. Cross-cultural studies of social ageing
  940. Personality, culture and choices of where and how to live
  941. Culture, gender and residential choices
  942. Box 17.4 Lessons from culture: Residential care in China
  943. The older person and the internet
  944. The developmental benefits of mixed-age social contact
  945. Personality and adjustment in old age
  946. The development of the self-concept in old age
  947. Box 17.5 Test yourself: How does your age self-concept measure up?
  948. Motivation, personality and personal control
  949. Box 17.6 How do you explain it?: A life-or-death experiment in a nursing home
  950. Aged health care and personal control
  951. Stress and coping
  952. Coping with stress in mature adulthood
  953. Developmental gains in coping skills during old age
  954. Integrity: The crisis over wisdom versus despair
  955. Sexuality in old age
  956. Box 17.7 Is sex in old age a joke?
  957. Chapter summary
  958. For further interest
  959. Chapter 18 The end of the lifespan: Death, dying and bereavement
  960. Chapter overview
  961. Death as a lifespan developmental process
  962. Death through the lifespan
  963. Longevity in the world today
  964. Centenarians and the ageing population
  965. How to live to be 100
  966. Box 18.1 A case in point: Extreme longevity
  967. The tragedy of Indigenous Australians’ curtailed longevity
  968. Promoting health and longevity in Indigenous communities
  969. Box 18.2 How can you explain it?: Indigenous versus non-Indigenous Australians’ longevity
  970. The psychological impact of population longevity
  971. The timing of death and lifespan psychological development
  972. Box 18.3 A pause for thought: How psychology’s causal influence on longevity transcends methodolog
  973. Death’s natural causes
  974. Social influences on longevity
  975. Nature versus nurture in predicting personal longevity
  976. Box 18.4 Activity suggestion: How long will you live?
  977. Development of knowledge, beliefs and feelings about death over the lifespan
  978. Children’s beliefs about death
  979. Box 18.5 Activity suggestion: Death quiz
  980. Developmental changes in children’s death understanding and death anxiety
  981. Box 18.6 A pause for thought: What does a mature understanding of death consist of?
  982. Death understanding in adolescence and adulthood
  983. Box 18.7 A child called Louise: A case in point: Thoughts about death from toddlerhood to adolescenc
  984. Death anxiety in adolescence and adulthood
  985. Box 18.8 Activity suggestion: Test your own death anxiety
  986. Death anxiety in old age
  987. The influence of close encounters with death
  988. The process of dying
  989. Stages in adjustment to death
  990. Box 18.9 A case in point: Dying courageously
  991. A critique of Kübler-Ross’ theory
  992. Choice and personal control
  993. The rights of the dying and living wills
  994. The hospice
  995. Cultural variations in dying and the acceptance of death
  996. Indigenous Australians’ and New Zealanders’ death attitudes and practices
  997. Box 18.10 Indigenous insight: Cultural cooperation in terminal care
  998. Box 18.11 Lessons from culture: Wishes fulfilled
  999. Death and dying in cross-cultural perspective
  1000. Bereavement
  1001. The management of grief
  1002. Widows and widowers
  1003. Box 18.12 A case in point: Staying involved after death
  1004. The immediate aftermath of spousal bereavement
  1005. Identity development after the widowhood transition
  1006. Positive psychological growth during widowed life
  1007. Widowhood and culture
  1008. Gender, bereavement, divorce and individuality
  1009. Chapter summary
  1010. For further interest
  1011. In a nutshell
  1012. Glossary
  1013. References
  1014. Photo credits
  1015. Author index
  1016. Subject index

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